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巧练是学习英语的金钥匙
2021-06-19 10:02佚名 

  依据认知规律,学生学习外语的过程可以分为六个阶段:感知语言材料(包括模仿),培养观察能力;理解语言材料(包括识别),培养思维能力;巩固语言材料,培养记忆能力;应用语言材料,培养运用能力;活用语言材料,培养创造能力。这五个阶段相互联系,相互促进,很难绝然分开。从教的角度上看,前两个阶段合为一起,称为讲解语言材料;后三个阶段合为一起,称为练习。这样,教学过程实际上就是由讲和练两个大部分组成。学习外语要以练为主,讲练结合。

  由此看来,练是学习英语的“金钥匙”。当然,这里的“练”是科学的练,是巧练,而不题海战术。

  一,加强以培养语感为目的的听读训练

  敏锐的外语语感是学好外语的重要条件,也是一个人语言素质的重要标南。 但它是在言活动中发展而来的,并且是建立在语言内容而不是语言形式基础上的。

  所以从起始年级开始,老师就要有目的,有意识,有步骤地引导学生练听练读,培养外语语感。

  练听,具体可分四个步骤:(1)模仿跟读阶段。让学生通过听录音或听老师读,模仿正确的语音或语调,适当的讲解意群,连续,弱读,清辅音浊化等语言特征和现象;②辨音会意阶段。可以是一组组的单词(如船/羊;吃/吃;小姐/夫人; T / G等,),也可以是一组组的句子(如:这个盒子?/这是公共汽车吗?/Are they students?/Are there students?/The glass issmall/The class is small, 等等。).In addition to processing language materials at this stage, teachersAlso consciously let students do special training in identifying numbers, time, date, etc.; ③Skills training stage.At this stage, situational conversation and short passage comprehension are mainly used as listening materials.The above three stages should be listening training under the control of the teacher; ④Intelligence training stage.That is to guide students to listen to recordings and broadcasts alone.This stage should be uncontrolled listening training.Teachers must create conditions for students,Such as dubbing tapes, telling students what bands or frequencies they can listen to English broadcasts, etc.Currently,English teaching in my country generally focuses on listening and speaking at the junior high school stage.Use visual aids and performances in the classroom,Excluding the intermediary of mother tongue,This needless to say for cultivating language sense.But it focuses on how the level of listening directly affects the formation of language sense and the formation and development of overall language ability in the future.It is still an issue worthy of attention and research.Therefore, the density and breadth of listening training should be increased in high school.Because the language in junior high school is simple and easy to remember,Language content is easy to perceive,A clear image is formed in the mind; and the abstract content increases in the high school stage,It is difficult to form a listening comprehension immediately.If you don't increase the density and breadth of training,It is not conducive for students to naturally internalize and absorb language materials in language contact.Cultivate a sense of language.

  Practice reading.Read more language materials,Especially the text---standardized reading materials,Can read aloud on the basis of understanding,您也可以以无声阅读的方式思考。圈出微妙之处,一方面要注意句子的结构,另一方面, 通过言语唤起相关的外表, 重构想象力和各种联想; 或引起强烈的情感共鸣,或者使用上下文和您自己的经验来品尝泛音或泛音。当然,教师应首先从方法中进行指导。

  人们常说:熟练程度高涨。背诵,我想只是为了背诵,它属于阅读的高级阶段。古时候, 私立学校经常强迫学童背诵“三字经”, “四本书”, 和“五个经典”, etc.为了实现“读书一百遍,其目的是看到自己。我认为记住外语也是一样。只要您长时间背诵大量文字(包括对话),可以基本掌握英语的“词序”和“总体结构”,接受外部语言刺激时具有较高的“预期能力”,也就是说, 您只能通过听对方的单个单词来感知句子。甚至下面要说的内容。有了这种“预期能力”,语言的感觉就形成了。

  2。 口语和写作训练强调培养表达能力

  罗宾网, 一位著名的美国语言专家, 划分了英语听力的四种基本语言技能, 请讲, 读, 并分为两类:接受能力和生产能力。

  听力和写作是重用大脑中存储的信息的表达能力。这两种能力的提高相互制约和促进。理解能力是表达能力的前提和条件,表达能力的优缺点对理解能力的提高有正面或负面的影响。因此,在加强听力和阅读训练以培养语言意识的同时,还必须强调口语和写作训练,以提高表达能力。

  练习说。会说几句英语的人,通常会有成功感,消除后顾之忧,建立信心。然而, 对于许多中学生学了三四年后, 您可能不会用英语说三到四十句话。总是害怕犯错误,不敢说话,认为这是一种无法实现的事情。至少学生有一个错误的想法,也就是说, 中国人在学习英语时缺乏交流的环境。实际上, 我们可以创建一个语言环境。①从复述文本开始:以词性转换的形式复述文本; 改变说话的人; 掌握主要思想简单讲一下。②以熟悉的句型放置单词或短语来组成句子。学生通常很难记住新单词。烂记并不好,很无聊。如果您使用此方法为每个新单词制作三到五个句子,那将是两只鸟只有一块石头:训练了单词和句子的基本技能,我还训练了我的英语口语流。③练习会话。教师应主动,除在课堂上给学生创造多说英语的语境外,更要注意随时诱导学生讲英语。只要学生能用英语进行回答,目的也就达到了。经常这样就可以激发他们的兴趣,树立他们的信心。如果全班的学生都能进行,那么学生之间就可以创造情景练习会话。④每周或每月定期开展英语角或英语活动日,扩大言语实践量。

  练写。用英语练写,不但能巩固学生英语词汇,句型,习惯用法,语法的掌握程度,而且还有助于学生在实践中逐步达到用词正确,句型正确,语法正确的境界;其次,学生经常通过写的训练可以培养用英语思维的能力以及完整表达思想的能力。再次,在写的训练中,学生能提高文字表达能力和口头表达能力,肌肤活用语言,发展其创造能力。同时,学生思维能力的提高,又有利于学生在听和读的训练中捕捉主要的语音信息,从而正确理解语言材料。所以我们又可以说,写的训练又促进了听,说,读的能力。

  就写的方法而言,①最好是抓住课文这个语言材料不放,笔头,口头复述并举,简称或改写。②提供语言点,让学生连句成文。③要重视对英文书信,日记,通知,看图说话,故事,人物简介等分类进行系统训练,以了解和掌握相应的文体写作知识及技巧。当然,在写的过程中要把握住由浅入深,循序渐进的原则,脚踏实地,一步一个脚印地有针对性地训练。

  3。 侧重于综合学习的自学能力

  毕竟, 课堂教学的时间是有限的。为了学好英语 学生必须具有自我学习的能力。正如Suhomlinsky强调的那样:教学不仅是为了让学生“学习”,学生还必须“学习”和“热爱学习”,给学生独立的学习能力。所以,学生需要在以下几个方面进行全面的培训:①学习如何使用字典,搜索字典时,培训是快速而准确的。②教学生掌握预习的五个学习环节, class, practice, review and summary,Carry out the training of good study habits; ③Guide students to read extracurricular books extensively,Especially English books,Understand English expressions, idioms, thinking habits and social and cultural background knowledge in many aspects,So as to stimulate their interest in learning.

  In short,Learning English should start from the development of students,Focus on skills,Improve the quality of,To train in a targeted manner,Train step by step,Training in various forms,Advocate method training and comprehensive ability training.

  Use training to promote the process of English teaching,Use training to promote the transformation of students' knowledge and ability,To lay the foundation for students to truly use English as a tool for learning and communicating scientific knowledge. (Ma Weina, Beijing) ""Cultivation of non-intellectual factors in primary school English teaching"" "Cultivation of non-intelligent factors in primary school English teaching" for students to learn English,Classmates are the same as other courses,I have a feeling,The cognitive activity process from thinking to creation and from interest,There are two aspects of the intentional activity process from emotion to will.And the two are closely related.On the one hand, cognitive activities determine the strength of cognitive activities.As the cognitive process deepens,Intentional activities will be strengthened accordingly.

  on the other hand,Intentional activity determines the depth of cognition.Lenin said: "There is no human feeling,Never,It is impossible for anyone to pursue the truth."therefore,The inner interest of the student,情感和意志,是其乐学、好学、勤学、创造性地学的动力。近年来,我在英语教学中培养学生的兴趣,情感、意志等非智力因素作了一些探索。

  一、培养学习兴趣,激发求知欲。

  兴趣是学好英语的前提。兴趣作为非智力因素的重要方面,对学生的学习活动起着调节作用,对完成学习任务起着推动作用,对能力的培养和智力的开发起着制约作用。

  1、创设英语情景,激发兴趣。

  刚学英语的小学生,出于好奇心和新鲜感,对英语往往抱有较大的兴趣,在教学中,我抓住这一心理特点,因势利导。以演示法为主。尽可能地创造学习英语的环境,进一步激发他们的学习兴趣。如在教第二册第三课对话时,教师可以有意把铅笔放在地上。然后装出找东西的样子问学生:“Where is my pen-cil?

  ”在教Im sorry时,可以有意把学生的东西碰落在地上。又如教初中第一册第十 课时,让学生们戴上画有猪、母牛、山羊、马等动物的头饰,问学生:“假如你们来到动物园,看到这些动物,你们想问哪些问题?”学生们会兴奋地很快地说出:What are these?Are these pigs or goats?Are they fat?等句子。这种情景教学能在课堂上创造真实生活的片段,学生感到熟悉、亲切,因而学起来特别顺利。They have learned the language in the textbook,I also know how to apply the language I have learned to life.

  This greatly shortens the distance between classroom teaching and real life,At the same time, it also stimulated students' interest in learning English,Aroused the enthusiasm of students to learn English.

  2. Cultivate a sense of competition,Increase interest in learning.

  Elementary school students have the characteristic of being "victorious",Any language game with a competitive nature can inspire them.therefore,I encourage students to increase their sense of competition,Develop an enterprising spirit,Lead students from the competition on test scores to the pursuit of knowledge,A race to improve intelligence.Such as guiding students to argue about their opinions in the new language,I often use the last five or ten minutes in class,Let students do a two-minute quick written sentence contest or silent word contest,See who makes a lot of sentences in two minutes,The sentence is correct,Or there are many silent words,Silently correct.Then let the students in the same seat check each other,Correct each other,Report the highest score,Let the students applaud and congratulate.

  3. Education is entertaining,Consolidate interest.

  Primary school English should be "education through fun,Entertaining in activities.”

  American educator Julia Dobson said: "Game is an excellent way to take a short break in the middle of routine exercises in the classroom while keeping this relaxing activity in the frame of language learning."I often let students consolidate their foreign language knowledge in game activities.For example, the teacher asks students to guess the number or color they like; develop memory and games: "Find similar words."The teacher said an English word for school supplies,Ask students to say the words of other school supplies they have learned.Such as doing a "finding" game.The teacher placed a number of objects on the podium,After the student observes for a while, take one away,Then the students tell what is missing in English.此外,There are games of guessing the position of prepositions and so on.Class games are fun,Nervous again,Can control the attention of the whole class,It also enables students to consolidate their knowledge in playing and guessing,Development ability.however,Primary school students are very active by nature,It is easy for them to get bored of a single form of game.therefore,Teachers should pay attention to adjusting the game form of classroom teaching at any time.Seize the right time.In this way, students' curiosity and freshness in language learning are constantly aroused to strengthen their interest in learning English.

  2. Emphasize emotional communication,Cultivate self-confidence.

  1. Pay attention to the transfer of emotions,Touching with affection.

  Students' tireless pursuit of knowledge,Not only depends on the interest in learning and the clear purpose,There must also be emotion as motivation.

  The idiom "Love House and Wu" tells people that emotions have a transfer function.And "my teacher,Believe it in its own way" more clearly pointed out,Students' emotions towards teachers can improve students' disposition towards the knowledge they have learned.The emotional transfer of elementary school students is particularly strong.

  The relationship is two-sided.You love students,Students love you too.Loving students can deeply understand the difficulties and needs of students in the learning process.Teachers should not be authoritative,The image of the supervisor appeared in front of the students,Instead, through your own words, actions, expressions,Pass the emotional message of kindness, encouragement, trust, and respect to students.

  2. Pay attention to emotional stimulation,Take emotional people.

  Every student has a desire to learn English well when they first learn English.But setbacks in learning can easily damage students' self-confidence.Make them feel aversion to English learning.In order to help students build self-confidence,In teaching, I pay attention to communicating feelings with students,对学习较差的学生不嫌弃,保护他们的自尊心和积极性,特别注意他们的点滴进步。

  有的学生不爱学习,语文、数学成绩都很差,对英语就更不感兴趣。上课时不愿开口,针对这种情况。我有意识地多接近这些学生,常常利用课间带他们读生词,耐心帮他们纠正发音。慢慢地他们愿读了,上课也肯开口了。在课堂上,对于差生我尽量提一些估计他们能够答出的问题,答对了及时给予肯定和表扬。

  答错了不批评而加以引导;对他们在作业中的错误,我加强当面辅导,反复讲清道理,直到他们弄懂为止。就这样,教师不断激发学生的学习情感,注意维护学生的自信心,使学生把这种情感逐渐转变为学习的动力。

  三、采取多种途径,培养学习意志。

  学生有了学习兴趣和积极性,还必须有克服学习困难的坚强意志才能持久地进行学习。

  随着课程的加深和生词量的增加,学生必然会觉得英语越来越难学,这时意志的作用就显得十分重要了。

  1、进行学习目的性的教育,端正学习动机。

  为了培养学生的学习意志,教师应注意经常对他们进行学习英语的目的性教育。使他们在思想上认识到学英语的必要性。认识英语在南京成为国际化大都市中的重要性,从而使学生逐步形成正确的学习动机。同时,根据教材的每个课题讲清其学习目的,To enable students to correctly understand the social significance of learning textbook knowledge.On the one hand, teachers pay attention to cultivating students to combine "interest" with lofty goals.Strengthen the self-consciousness and enthusiasm of learning; on the other hand, pay attention to cultivating students' unremitting pursuit of knowledge.

  2. Teach learning methods,Overcome learning difficulties.

  Students encounter various difficulties in their studies,Will gradually lose interest in learning this subject and adopt a negative attitude.Teachers can invite students who are good at English learning in the class and students who have made significant progress in English learning,Introduce to the whole class what difficulties you have encountered in English learning,How did you try to overcome these difficulties through your own will.The presentations of these students not only set an example for other students, but alsoIt also increased their courage to overcome difficulties.

  The reasons that cause students' learning difficulties,One of the most important points is improper learning methods.Teachers can only help students overcome difficulties in time.Students can build confidence.

  In the teaching voice,Teachers should talk about the relationship between the pronunciation and spelling of list words,Teaching some pronunciation rules in vocabulary teaching,Induction (with common vowel phonemes) can be used to help students remember words,This will undoubtedly improve students' ability to memorize words.

  Take voice teaching as an example,Tell students that the pronunciation of unvoiced consonants in words is relatively fixed.变化较大的元音在单词中的发音也相对固定。有些字母通常以字母组合的形式连接在一起,他们的发音也相对固定。因为学生已经掌握了语言定律和语言学习方法,学生在课堂上的学习将更加活跃和有效。

  当学生学习困难时, 他们应该提供必要的指导,通过他们的努力帮助他们完成学习任务。使他们获得成功的经验。

  In addition,您还可以在学生之间建立一个“相互帮助和共同学习”小组,开展学习比赛。这些活动可以为训练学生的学习英语创造良好的外部条件。当学生看到自己通过自己的努力取得了成绩时,会感到高兴,这产生了继续克服困难和学习英语的内在动力。

  通过培养非智力因素,学生的学习能力和学习成绩已有一定程度的提高。

  如在区两届“小星星”的英语知识竞赛中我校学生均获团体第一名。参赛的同学均获得了个人一,二等奖。区英语听力比赛获团体总分第一名。总结,英语教学应注意非智力心理因素的培养,努力创造提供利于学生英语学习的环境。教师必须自觉地组织和发挥学生非智力因素的种种功能,以保证取得预期的教学效果,达到既定的教学目的。这样遍能提高学生的学习质量,同时也能培养学生的学习能力,对学生的健康成长有重要意义。

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