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巧用矿泉水瓶做物理实验
2021-06-19 10:11佚名 

  Physics experiment is the most important and basic method for studying and researching physics.Experiments can help students build perceptual understanding,It can also stimulate students' interest in learning.There are many materials that can be used for physics experiments in life,Here are a few examples of small physical experiments done with mineral water bottles.

  1. Demonstration of "Inertial Phenomena"

  Take an empty mineral water bottle,Cut off the upper part and fill in the right amount of water,Then cover it with a piece of cardboard,Place the egg on the cardboard (as shown in Figure 1),I suddenly flicked the cardboard with my finger,It can be observed that the eggs did not fly with the cardboard,It fell into the bottle safely.The egg falls directly below because of its own inertia and still maintains its original static state.

  2. Demonstrate "Factors Affecting the Effect of Pressure"

  ①Take an empty mineral water bottle,Fill the bottle with a small amount of water and place it on a sponge,I immediately saw the sponge dented a bit; fill the mineral water bottle with water and put it on the sponge,You will find that the sponge has sunken deeper,as shown in picture 2.It can be concluded that the effect of pressure is related to the size of the pressure;

  ②Take an empty mineral water bottle,Fill the bottle with water and cap it,Put it on a sponge,Observe the degree of depression of the sea surface,Then turn the bottle upside down and place it on the sea,Observe the degree of depression of the sea surface,Compare the degree of two depressions,It can be concluded that the effect of pressure is related to the size of the contact area.

  3. Demonstrate the existence of "atmospheric pressure"

  ① Take an empty mineral water bottle and fill it with water,Immerse the mineral water bottle in the water as shown in Figure 3A; if you grab the bottom of the bottle and lift it up,You will find that before the mouth of the bottle leaves the water,The bottle is always full of water,As shown in Figure 3B; if a small hole is drilled in the bottom of the bottle,Redo the above experiment,You will find that the water surface in the bottle is always level with the water surface outside the bottle.As shown in Figure 3 C.Can prove the existence of atmospheric pressure.

  ②Take an empty mineral water bottle,Pour a small amount of hot water into the bottle,Pour it out after shaking and close the cap immediately,After a while, I found that the bottle was slowly sinking inward,Can prove the existence of atmospheric pressure.

  4. Demonstrate "The internal pressure of liquid is related to depth"

  As shown in Figure 4.拿一瓶矿泉水,Drill three small holes with different upper and lower positions in the side wall,Plug it with a rubber stopper,Fill the bottle with water,Put the bottle on a table high enough,Then pull out the rubber plugs at the same time,Through experimental exploration, it can be found thatThe horizontal range of spraying water from different holes is different,This demonstrates that "the internal pressure of the liquid is related to the depth".

  5. Demonstrate "the pressure inside the liquid has pressure in all directions"

  拿一瓶矿泉水,If in different directions of the mineral water bottle,Drill a lot of small holes with small iron nails,Then fill the bottle with water,Cap the bottle,Squeeze the bottle hard with both hands,It can be seen that water is sprayed in all directions from different small holes,This can prove that "the inside of the liquid has pressure in all directions".

  6. Demonstration of "the cause of buoyancy"

  Take a mineral water bottle with an inner diameter slightly smaller than the diameter of a ping pong ball,Remove its bottom,Put a ping pong ball at the mouth of the bottle,Then pour water into the bottle,You will find water coming out of the mouth of the bottle,The table tennis does not float up,The reason is "Only the upper surface of the table tennis ball is under the downward pressure of the water,The lower surface is basically not subject to upward pressure from the water",所以, 乒乓球没有漂浮(如图5A所示); 然后用手指挡住瓶口很快,您将看到乒乓球浮起(如图5 B和C所示),原因是在这个时候, “乒乓球的上下表面在水压下,并且下表面上的压力大于上表面上的压力”。可以证明“浮力的原因”,那是, “由物体上液体的上,下表面之间的压力差引起”。

  7。 演示“光折射”现象

  Take a bottle of mineral water,切掉上部并注满水,将筷子斜向插入水中,从水倾斜地看,您会发现插入水中的筷子向上弯曲,可以演示光的折射(如图6所示)。

  8。 展示“力量的影响”

  用双手挤压一个空的矿泉水瓶会使瓶子变形,如果施加的力增加,瓶子的变形程度增加,这表明力的作用与力的大小有关,力量越大,力的作用越明显。

  9。 演示“流体压力与流速之间的关系”

  放两瓶将乒乓球放在瓶子的一侧,从另一侧吹入瓶子的缝隙,乒乓球不动。从缝隙中吹出瓶子侧面附近的风速很大,低压乒乓球外的风速很小,压力很大,会有向内的压力差,所以球不动。可以解释流体压力与流量之间的关系。

  10。 Demonstration of "the ups and downs of objects"

  ① Take a bottle of mineral water,Cut off the upper part and fill it with clean water (as shown in Figure 7).Eggs will sink to the bottom when placed in clean water; if salt is placed in clean water,If the prepared saline is suitable,The eggs will be suspended in salt water.Continue to add salt,The egg will float up,Eventually float on the liquid surface.

  ② Make a floating sinker: take a bottle of mineral water,Pour in the right amount of water (not full).Then take a small glass bottle for injection and fill it with an appropriate amount of water,Pour it into a mineral water bottle,Make it float like (shown in Figure 8),Then close the bottle cap,By squeezing the bottle body hard, it is found that the small glass bottle can sink and float.Make it into a simple float.Or leave the lid uncovered,And put a rubber film on the mouth of the bottle,Then press the rubber film with your fingers,The same can make small glass bottles float and sink.

  11. Demonstrate related experiments of "convex lens"

  ① Take a bottle of mineral water,You can fill the bottle with water,Facing the sun,You can get "fine" bright bars on the ground,Explain that the convex lens can condense sunlight (convex lens converges the light).

  ②Take a bottle of mineral water,You can fill the bottle with water,Then observe the object through the bottle (note that the distance between the bottle and the object is moderate),You can see the virtual image of the enlarged object,Demonstrate that the convex lens becomes a magnified virtual image.

  12. Demonstration of "Weightlessness Phenomenon"

  Take a bottle of mineral water,Fill the bottle with half a bottle of water,Drill a small round hole in the bottom of the bottle with an iron nail,We can see water spraying out of the hole, 如果此时允许塑料瓶自由落下,您会看到水不再向外喷,这验证了水的失重性。

  13 演示“气体的压力随着体积的增加而降低”

  Take a bottle of mineral water,在靠近瓶子底部的侧壁上打一个小圆孔,用胶带密封孔,然后拧开盖子,加水到瓶子里,然后撕下胶带,水从小孔中喷出,如图9所示。然后关闭瓶盖并拧紧,不久,水停止从小孔中喷出,此时, 瓶子水面上方的气压低于外界大气压。该实验表明,气体的压力随着体积的增加而降低。

  14。 制作“水火箭”

  器材:矿泉水瓶,气筒,自行车气门,铁丝,橡皮塞,水等。水火箭构造如图10所示。在瓶中装适量的水,塞好瓶塞后放在发射架上。用气筒向瓶内打气,瓶内上方气体压强达到一定程度,高压气体将水和橡皮塞从瓶口压出,利用水的反冲作用把瓶推向高空。

  此外,利用矿泉水瓶还能制成水平仪,可用来做阿基米德原理的溢水杯等。只要我们在教学中适时引导学生用生活中常见,便宜的器材(或废物)做实验,研究物理问题,不但人数众多的学生倍感亲切,还有利于学生学习兴趣的激发和动手能力及创新精神的培养,从而收到出奇制胜的效果。

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